Today’s post comes from Thomas Richardson, an expert archives technician at the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St. Louis, Missouri.
The awards system of the United States Armed Forces is complex with a plethora of awards. They range from awards given for acts of valor to those given for blanket participation in the service branches. A handful of veterans are distinguished by awards for high gallantry, valor, and bravery, e.g., the Medal of Honor, Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross. Other awards are more ubiquitous, e.g., the Army Service Ribbon, Air Force Training Ribbon, Honorable Discharge Button, etc. These are found throughout millions of military personnel records.
One medal has achieved a unique distinction amongst the routine awards. Established near the end of the Korean War, the National Defense Service Medal (NDSM) has graced the ribbon racks of millions of veterans.
The Department of Defense estimates that since 1953, the NDSM has been awarded at least four million times, not even counting those who apply for it retroactively. The NDSM is authorized at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense, who determines when a national emergency is present and allows the NDSM to be awarded. This means that the NDSM has gone through periods of inactivity.
On Tuesday, August 30, 2022, the first anniversary of the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan, Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin signed orders ending issuance of the National Defense Service Medal for the War on Terror. After January 1, 2023, no active duty service members that enlist after that date will receive the medal. This marks the longest period that the NDSM was authorized; 21 years, 3 months, and 20 days.
What are this award’s origins? How did this award become so procedural? The answer lies with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During the Korean War, President Eisenhower became concerned with growing contentions in the Cold War. President Harry Truman had already created the Korean Service Medal for service in the Korean War. President Eisenhower conceived the idea of a “blanket campaign” medal that would be issued to any honorably discharged veteran with active service during a “national emergency.” What stipulated a “national emergency” remained at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense. No matter where they served, the NDSM signified military service.
On April 22, 1953, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10448 “Establishing the National Defense Service Medal” outlining its basic qualifications:
There is hereby established the National Defense Service Medal, with suitable appurtenances, for award, under such regulations as the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force and the Secretary of the Treasury may severally prescribe, and, subject to the provisions of this order, to members of the armed forces of the United States who shall have served during any period between June 27, 1950, and a terminal date to be fixed by the Secretary of Defense…
This order delegated authority to the Secretary of Defense to determine eligibility dates. The Department of Defense followed up on July 15, 1953, with a directive expanding personnel eligibility, issuance procedure, and ribbon layout.
Since 1953, the NDSM was revised by three executive orders, inactivated and reactivated four times, and expanded from active duty service to National Guard and Reservist service. The four active periods coincide with major wars: Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm, and the War on Terror. In the 1960s and 1970s, as the Vietnam War intensified, active duty servicemembers performing stateside service along with reservists and Guardsmen qualified for the award. The same criteria applied to Desert Storm participants. By the War on Terror, the NDSM expanded qualifications to its greatest extent. Since 9/11, service members could receive the NDSM almost as a given if they completed 90 days of consecutive active duty, not including training periods.
Those who are on active duty for multiple approved time periods receive bronze star appurtenance on the NDSM and ribbon. Officer cadets that graduate from military academies can receive the NDSM along with those at Officer Candidate Schools upon their commission.
While the National Defense Service Medal is one of the most-issued awards, it can sometimes be overlooked by clerks and records technicians when discharging a veteran with only a few weeks of service. Many veterans apply for a retroactive issuance of the NDSM if it doesn’t appear on their discharge and they served during one of the four authorized time periods.
That will all change after December 31, 2022. The decision by the Department of Defense signals a more peacetime posture with the limitation of troop deployments and counterterrorism operations. The United States is still involved in Syria, but major combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have all ceased. Many veterans can scarcely remember a time when the NDSM wasn’t issued or couldn’t be found on a ribbon rack. Its appearance and commonality gave it a distinctive nickname (the “pizza stain”) for its red and yellow colors. Despite its formulaic criteria and issuance, the National Defense Service Medal for many represents their commitment at a time when the nation needed their service.
14 thoughts on “End of an Era: The National Defense Service Medal”
I served 3 years active duty in the Army from September 26, 1961 to September 15, 1964 & was honorably discharged. I never received my National Defense Service Medal which I believe I qualify for. How to I get that recognition for my service that included the time of the Viet Nam conflict?
Anyone who served on active duty for more than 30 days between January 1, 1961 to August 14, 1974 is eligible for the NDSM. You would need to submit a request to the NPRC asking for retroactive issuance of the NDSM. Visit https://www.archives.gov/veterans/replace-medals for more information.
Honestly Boot Recruits should have never received the ribbon because they are just recruits.
Cold War veterans that have deployed, served on ships. Outside of the continental United States. Should be recognized. They are truly the forgotten!
Maybe it’s time to renew lobbying for the Cold War Service Medal — while there’s still enough of us Cold Warriors left to matter.
Anyone that makes it through boot camp, is now officially serving in the defense of the country.
I agree!!!! I served my full contract 1977 to 1980/3-yr contract. And didn’t get a NDSM or anything. I guess we were considered America’s, ugly duckling soldiers since there was no war per se. However, we were attacked in way-Remember the Iran Hostage Crisis.
We (US Army) went on alert along with other branches. Jimmy Carter was President, Clifford Alexander was Secretary of the Army. So it is apparent-that we were not real gunfighting war-like Vietnam. That we poor saps, weren’t important to America………..very hurt by this at 66 yrs old. Only some West Point cadet that didn’t know the US Army existed……Would hurt a bunch of real patriates!! You hear me Mr. Austin.
You are wrong and obviously not a veteran. Your opinion is irrelevant.
Correction. The key dates are when you SERVED not the day when you enlisted or were comissioned.
Sorry, but the NDSM was only good only for decoration, to add another ribbon to the uniform. At least for the Air Force. You didn’t receive any points towards promotional opportunities. As being out of the military, the NDSM does absolutely nothing for you. It doesn’t provide the ability to join VFW, it doesn’t help with Veteran’s Preference, it does absolutely nothing for you. The American Defense Medal, on the other hand at least allows you to be eligible for benefits.
I served for 3 years and never received my National accommodation medal I have two honorable discharges I feel I deserve that metal even though I didn’t go to Vietnam I served from 72 to 75
I serve 12 weeks North Atlantic operations tracking and hunting the last nuclear subs from the Soviet Union all of us at my base which was 87 men never got a national defense medal for outstanding work 24/7 operations at that base.
While on US Army Reserve, I was activated on September 12, 2001. I was on active duty orders. I also stayed behind providing support to my unit while they were deployed to Irak. Do I qualify to receive the National Defense Service Medal?
Yes you qualify for NDSM
Yes you do qualify for the NDSM.