The Last Living Doolittle Raider: Lt. Cole. Richard “Dick” Cole

Today’s post comes from Kimberlee Ried, public programs specialist at the National Archives at Kansas City. Research was provided by Michael Tarabulski, archivist at the National Archives at St. Louis.

The 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is today. For those who fought in World War II, they likely had no idea that they would not only be heralded for an Allied victory that would take several years to achieve, but that they would continue to be honored as American heroes decades later. The records in the National Archives provide a glimpse of some of these individuals.

Lieutenant Colonel Richard “Dick” Cole was part of a group known as the “Doolittle Toyko Raiders” named for James “Jimmy” Doolittle who had been assigned to plan the mission and lead the raid on April 18, 1942, to bomb the Japanese city of Tokyo as retaliation for the attack on Pearl Harbor, and begin the process of defeating Imperial Japan. Cole served as Doolittle’s co-pilot. Like many men, Cole had registered with his local draft board in Dayton, Ohio.

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Richard Cole’s draft registration card (front) from the National Archives in St. Louis

Cole’s World War II draft registration card, filed with the local board in Montgomery County, Ohio, is now part of the holdings of the National Archives at St. Louis, which is co-located with the National Personnel Records Center. Cole was twenty-five years old when he registered on October 16, 1940, well over a year before the attack. He listed his father as the person “who will always know his address.”

Cole was employed prior to his military service at the Lear Avi (Avia) Corporation in Vandalia, Ohio, which manufactured radio and airplane instruments including navigational equipment. It is likely no coincidence that Cole wound up being trained as a pilot given his knowledge of the mechanical aspects of flying.

Although draft registration cards are brief in terms of the data provided, they can often give more insight into an individual. During World War II, the Selective Service System conducted six draft registrations. The majority of registrations were men born between 1897 and 1927 and cover most of those who served in World War II.

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Richard Cole’s draft registration card (back) from the National Archives in St. Louis

Another group of men also registered for WWII under the “Old Man’s Registration” or the “Old Man’s Draft.” This is known as the 4th Registration and covers men born between 1877 to 1897, many of whom may had also served in World War I. These cards are open to the public for research and can be viewed at the National Archives in St. Louis.   

Relatively few of those who served in World War II are still living; Cole is now 101 years old and resides in Texas.

Tonight, Cole will be the guest speaker at a National Archives at Kansas City event where he will reflect upon his time as a part of the Doolittle Raiders. He will be interviewed by Park University Professor Dennis Okerstrom, who wrote about Cole in his book Dick Cole’s War: Doolittle Raider, Hump Pilot, Air Commando.

Tune in to watch the livestream at 5:30 ET/6:30 CT on December 7.: https://www.youtube.com/user/NationalWWIMuseum/live 

The event, which is sold out, is presented in partnership with Park University and the National World War I Museum and Memorial, and in collaboration with the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum and the Truman Center at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Do you have a relative who served in the Second World War? You can request their service record from the National Archives. Learn more: https://www.archives.gov/research/military/veterans

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The National Archives Response to Pearl Harbor

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News article on the National Archives efforts in response to the Pearl Harbor attack, November 29, 1942. (Records of the National Archives)

The December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor not only plunged the United States into world war, but it also had far-reaching ramifications for every single government agency, including the National Archives.

Immediately after Pearl Harbor, the National Archives made extensive plans to protect the nation’s records against the threats of war. The National Archives Building, which was considered the most bomb-resistant building in Washington, was divided into four areas classified according to their levels of security.

The Bill of Rights, which was on display in the exhibition hall, was replaced with a facsimile. It was moved with other constitutional amendments, treaties, and public laws into the safest areas of the building. The Archives built boxes for these valuable documents and prepared for their removal should they need to be evacuated from the building.

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New Online Exhibit: “Carting the Charters”

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Empty cases inside the National Archives Rotunda, 1/5/1936. (National Archives Identifier 7820619)

Today’s post comes from Sanjana Barr of the National Archives History Office.

Even though the National Archives Rotunda was completed in the mid-1930s as a shrine for the Declaration of Independence and Constitution, the documents were not transferred to the National Archives until 1952.

The National Archives History Office has produced a new online exhibit that explores the transfer of these historic documents from the Library of Congress to the National Archives. The “Carting the Charters” online exhibit is now available in Google Cultural Institute.

But what happened before the documents came to the Library of Congress? Continue reading

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Remembering “a date which will live in infamy”

Today’s post comes from Sonia Kahn in the National Archives History Office.

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The USS Shaw explodes during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12/7/1941. (National Archives Identifier 520590)

From its food to its anime to its cars to its video games, Japanese culture is part of everyday American life today. In 1941, however, the idea of so much Japanese influence in our daily lives would have been inconceivable, especially after the events at Pearl Harbor on that Sunday morning in December.

At 7:55 a.m., local time, the Japanese military began its fateful surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

The two-wave attack brought an hour and 15 minutes of chaos. These events were forever captured by the words of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as “a date which will live in infamy.”

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Historian’s Notebook: The Bill of Rights at 225

This post is from Jessie Kratz, Historian of the National Archives. It’s from the Winter 2016 issue of Prologue Magazine. 

The travels of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution have been chronicled frequently over the years—in fact, they are fascinating stories. However, the third “Charter of Freedom”—the Bill of Rights—has been largely overlooked.

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Bill of Rights, September 25, 1789. (National Archives Identifier 14080)

As we celebrate the 225th anniversary of the document’s ratification, let’s explore its history. A parchment document with 12 proposed constitutional amendments was created in September 1789, and copies were sent to the states for ratification.

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Ratifying the Bill of Rights . . . in 1939

This post comes from Mary Ryan, managing editor of Prologue magazine.

On December 15 we observe the 225th anniversary of the ratification of the Bill of Rights. One-by-one, from 1789 to 1791, the states ratified 10 amendments to the nation’s new Constitution. The process had begun when the First Federal Congress sent the states 12 proposed amendments, via a joint resolution passed on September 25, 1789, for their consideration. When Virginia became the 11th state to ratify the amendments on December 15, 1791, amendments 3 through 12 became part of the Constitution, and these first 10 amendments were thereafter known as our Bill of Rights.

One might think that 1791 was the end of the story of the ratification of the Bill of Rights, but there is a footnote: three states ratified the 10 first amendments a century and a half later, in 1939.

Once the Bill of Rights was ratified by three-fourths of the states in 1791, it became part of the law of the land, and there was no legal need for any further ratifications. At the time Virginia ratified, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Georgia had not sent their approvals to Congress.

In 1939, the 150th anniversary of Congressional approval of the amendments, all three states symbolically ratified the Bill of Rights.

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Connecticut’s ratification of the Bill of Rights, April 24, 1939, page 1 (National Archives Identifier 25466386, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, RG 233)

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Connecticut’s ratification of the Bill of Rights, April 24, 1939, page 2 (National Archives Identifier 25466386, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, RG 233)

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Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon

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George Washington, copy of painting by Gilbert Stuart. (National Archives Identifier 532888)

Today’s post comes from Jim Zeender, Senior Registrar in the National Archives Exhibits Office.

On October 1, 2016, the Mount Vernon Museum opened a new and groundbreaking exhibition called “Lives Bound Together: Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon.

The exhibition explores the long and complex relationship between George Washington and his slaves and his evolving attitudes toward the evil institution as a whole.

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A Trip to Williamsburg

Today’s post comes from Jim Zeender, Senior Registrar in the National Archives Exhibits Program in Washington, DC. 

In early September I had the pleasure of taking a train to Williamsburg, Virginia.

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Visitors at the Muscarelle Museum of Art Exhibit in Williamsburg, VA, November 7, 2016. (Photo Courtesy of the Muscarelle Museum of Art)

I have taken trains to Philadelphia, New York, and New Haven numerous times. Overseas, I have been on trains in England, France, Austria and Switzerland. However, I had never taken a train in a southerly direction here in my home country.

As we rolled slowly out of Union Station through downtown Washington, DC, and across the Potomac River, we had great views of the monuments.

Our first stop was Alexandria, boyhood home of Robert E.  Lee and location of the first Union soldier killed in the Civil War.

This Amtrak regional train continues on to Williamsburg via Fredericksburg, passing various Civil War battlefields, Richmond (the capital of the Confederacy), and stops in between. Instead of the industrial north, I saw the rolling hills and woods of Virginia, once roamed by the first Americans.

The purpose of the trip was to see the exhibition, “Building the Brafferton: Founding, Funding and Legacy of the American Indian School” at the Muscarelle Museum of Art on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.

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Gerald Ford: President and Veteran

In honor of Veterans Day, today’s post comes to you from Sanjana Barr of the National Archives History Office.

Gerald R. Ford Administration White House Press Releases

Press Release Statement regarding Veterans Day, September 20, 1975. (Gerald Ford Presidential Library, National Archives).

On September 20, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford signed legislation returning the official date for celebrating Veterans Day to November 11.

For the previous four years, Veterans Day had been observed on the fourth Monday in October due to the 1968 Uniform Holiday Act. That act mandated observance of four national holidays (George Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Veterans Day, and Columbus Day) on Mondays to create more three-day weekends.

The law led to confusion about Veterans Day, with it being celebrated in October in some places and on November 11 in others.

President’s Ford’s action was also important for symbolic reasons. After World War I, November 11 was recognized as Armistice Day in many of the Allied nations and continues to be a way to honor fallen soldiers. Unlike most Armistice Day celebrations,  our observance of the holiday honors all American veterans, living and dead.

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The Election of 1800

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Tally of electoral votes for the 1800 Presidential election, 2/11/1801. (National Archives Identifier 2668821)

Anyone who is a fan of the hit musical Hamilton knows the song “Election of 1800.” It depicts an infamous election that ultimately led us to change our Constitution.

By 1800, the nation’s first two political parties were beginning to take shape. The two major candidates for President were the Federalist President, John Adams, and the Democratic-Republican candidate, Thomas Jefferson.

When the electors cast their votes, the result was a tie. But the tie wasn’t between Adams and Jefferson (Adams received 65 electoral votes). It was between Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, who both received 73 votes.

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